Capital: Warsaw
Population: 38,639,000
Government type: Democratic State
Location: Central Europe, east of Germany
Area: 312,685km²
Land boundaries: Total 2,888 km; Belarus 605 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 428 km
Ethnic groups: Polish (97.6%), German (1.3%), Ukrainian (0.6%), Beylorussian (0.5%)
Religions: Roman Catholic (95%) (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and other (5%)
Languages: Polish (some minorities speak Ukrainian, Beylorussian, German, Lithuanian and Slovak)


Economy

Poland today stands out as one of the most successful and open transition economies. The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms marked the rapid development of a private sector now responsible for 70% of economic activity. In contrast with the vibrant expansion of private non-farm activity, the large agriculture component remains handicapped by structural problems, surplus labour, inefficient small farms, and lack of investment. The government’s determination to enter the EU as soon as possible affects all aspects of its economic policies. Improving Poland’s worsening current account deficit also is a priority. To date, the government has resisted pressure for protectionist solutions and continues to support regional free trade initiatives. The government export strategy emphasizes a more aggressive export assistance programme. Warsaw continues to held the budget deficit to less than 2% of GDP. Further progress on public finance depends mainly on comprehensive reform of the social welfare system and privatization of Poland’s remaining state sector.

Police

wyczaw_am006When in 1918 independent Poland appeared on the European map (after being divided for two hundred years between Russia, Prussia and Austria) there wasn’t one professional police force. In different regions and even towns different militias and municipal police forces were founded. Step by step those forces and militias were united. In 1919, with the Police Act, the only State Police was founded. Step by step those forces and militias were united. In 1919, with the Police Act, the only State Police was founded. In the autonomic police of Silesian Voivodship, developed from the Plebiscitary Police in 1922, some women served from the beginning until World War II. They had no special units. Some women were members of the militias mentioned before, but they left the forces when the situation became stabilised. Within the State Police in 1925 a women’s police force was set up. After three months of training 30 policewomen began to work in the criminal police in the biggest cities. Their tasks were to fight white slavery, to control prostitution and to fight crimes connected to prostitution and drug related crimes. The policewomen at that time were uniformed. The first commander of Polish policewomen was (till 1939) Stanislawa-Filipina Paleolog. In 1935 women also began to work as uniformed police (contro over problem youth, crimes against children, control over prostitution). In 1939, before World War II, there were about 170 policewomen within the State Police.
After the war in 1944 only one centralised police force was created. Its name was Civic Militia. There were (few) female officers working in uniforms as well as in plain clothes, but no special female units. In 1990, after democratisation, Civic Militia was converted into the Police, and more women were accepted to change the culture and the image of the organisation.

In 1990 Polish National Police was established
Police – uniformed and armed force, which main goal is to serve and proctect the people, and to maintain public order and security.
The basic police activities:
• the protection of people`s health and life, the protection of property,
• the protection of public safety and order,
• creating and organizing “community policing” and crime prevention activities,
• detecting crimes and misdemeanors, arresting people who commited crimes,
• the control of regulations, regarding public life and public spaces,
• the cooperation with police forces from other countries and international organizations.

amitura120329_0042The Police shall consist of the following services: criminal service, prevention service and the service providing support for the Police activities in the field of organisation, logistics and technology. Maximum level of employment in the particular services (as of 1st March 2013): preventive service: 58 712 (62%) ; criminal investigation service 31 197 (33%); supporting service: 2744 (3%); management staff 1772 (2%), excluding police schools (803)
The Police shall include the court Police.
The Police Commander in Chief, reporting to the Minister competent for internal affairs, shall be the central government administration authority competent for issues related to the protection of people’s safety and maintenance of public safety and order. The Police Commander in Chief shall have command over all Police officers hereinafter referred to as “police officers”.

Currently in the Polish Police, there are 13 878 police women employed which is 14.4 % of all police officers (total number: 95 424). The women in the Police work in all kind of police services, e.g.: the criminal service, the uniformed police and the logistics.
The women in the Polish Police forces hold mainly the rank of non-commissioned officers (police constable, senior police constable, sergeant class II, sergeant class I, chief sergeant), and less often – the rank of warrant officer. In the lesser extent, the women hold the rank of officers (e.g. lieutenant, captain, major) and rarely the rank of senior officers. Until now, the rank of senior commissioner has not been awarded to any female officer.

It should be also noted that from the total number of 24 895 civil posts within the Police, there are 16 986 posts taken by women (68%).

Education

As statistics shows, the women in the Police have better education than men. In the same time, they are rarely designated to be heads of units.

It can be illustrated by the following data:

– 67 % of women in the Police has college or university degrees;
– 33 % of women in the Police has second degrees;
– 36% of men in the Police has college or university degrees;
– 64% of men in the Police has second degrees;
– 0,24 % of men in the Police has primary or basic professional education.